Project goal is to use Gforth as programming system on Android.
gl-fscale( r – ) with a float number as scale factor (<1 makes the font smaller, >1 bigger). Example:
3e gl-fscalemakes the font three times larger,
0.5e gl-fscalesmaller by a factor of two.
Starting the app first time unpacks the Gforth sources to the SD card. That's a few megabytes, and therefore it takes its time. Gforth shows a spinning wheel while it's doing so, but can't respond to any input events. If the spinner shows you „Done; restart Gforth“ for a while, you should kill and restart Gforth - it got stuck. If you still have problems, there's a gfortherr.log and a gforthout.log in /sdcard, which might provide more diagnosis.
The terminal uses a fragment shader, which implements a colored ASCII terminal - it uses two textures, one with the character set, and another with the characters and colors. An update of the terminal screen therefore only takes a few milliseconds - just like it used to be with in text mode. This has been tested with several really cheap phones with awful OpenGL implementations, so it should work on yours, too.
I recommend the following keyboards (in that order):
Since Android apps can't be started from the command line, you can enter options for starting Gforth in the file
/sdcard/gforth/home/.options. One line per option.
-d64k e.g. sets the stack to 64kB,
-m16M the dictionary to 16MB, see http://www.complang.tuwien.ac.at/forth/gforth/Docs-html/Invoking-Gforth.html
All Android examples are packet into
/sdcard/gforth/<version>/minos2. There is
minos2/gl-sample.fs: A simple OpenGL demo
minos2/gl-slideshow.fs: Plays a slideshow. Put photos into a directory, and a file listing all filenames (including path). Load that file with
minos2/android-recorder.fs: Records a video, when you start
camera-test. The recorded video will end up in
unix/sensors.fs: Read out Android sensors
Android's native API is Java. To access Java, the vocabulary
jni contains helper words and some predefined interface words. Calls to Java are usually related to some object; the interface is compatible to Mini-OOF2 with its current objects.
>o( addr o:old – o:addr r:old ) makes addr the current object, and pushes the previous current object onto the return stack.
o>( o:addr r:old – o:old ) pops the previous object from the return stack.
xref>( o:addr r:old – o:old ) same as o>, but includes releasing a local reference. Unlike Java's heap and stack, JNI memory is not part of the garbage collector, and therefore uses reference counting. If you get an object from a Java call, you should use
xref>to pop it after use, this allows the garbage collector to release this object. There is only a limited space for references, so release them soon.
xref>determines, which sort of reference that is, and correctly handles global and temporary references.
To define a method or a field, you use the following words:
jni-class:( „name“ – ) This sets the current class to „name“, which is the full scope hierarchy, using
/as separator. Example
jni-method:( „forth-name“ „java-name“ „signature“ – ) This defines a word „forth-name“ which calls the Java method „java-name“ on the current class with the specified API signature. Signatures have call parameters in parenthesis
()and the return parameter afterwards:
Jlong (double integer in Forth)
L<class>;object pointer of type <class>
[<type>array of the mentioned type
jni-static:( „forth-name“ „java-name“ „signature“ – ) same as
jni-method:but for static methods
jni-new:( „forth-name“ „signature“ – ) Constructor
jni-field:( „forth-name“ „java-name“ „signature“ – ) field (i.e. instance variable), the signature here is only the return value
jni-sfield:( „forth-name“ „java-name“ „signature“ – ) static field
OpenGL contains OpenGL ES 2.0 bindings (generated from the header files, including extensions and EGL bindings).
Gforth logs info into the files
/sdcard/gforthout.log. If something goes wrong, look here if you find an error message. If a source file is missing or defect, you can remove
/sdcard/gforth/; it is sufficient if you delete the file
sha256sum in the subfolder with the current release name. Sometimes, files move after an update, in that case, you might better remove the entire